Evolutionary mutations in the insulin over the past 540 million years has limited its ability to adapt to obesity and made people vulnerable to obesity-related diabetes, as well as monogenic diabetes, according to a study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Even the smallest changes in the insulin-sequencing process damages insulin folding -- and eventual insulin secretion -- as well as beta cell function, the researchers said.
A study in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism found that type 2 diabetes with obstructive sleep apnea experienced improvements in blood glucose control and insulin resistance after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. The treatment had significant effects on fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure.
Body mass index comes in behind age and male gender for the biggest risk factor indicating that COVID-19 patients in the ICU may develop severe pneumonia, according to a study presented during the ObesityWeek 2020 virtual meeting and published as a preprint in The Lancet. The study also found a nonlinear correlation between BMI and all-cause ICU mortality.
A study in Clinical Infectious Diseases found that the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is capable of surviving on human skin for up to nine hours, which is much longer than the influenza A virus. "It is critical to have information about the stability (survival time) of SARS-CoV-2 on the human skin to develop approaches to prevent contact transmission," the study authors wrote.
Researchers found that children ages 3 to 4 who participated in a five-week mindfulness-based intervention, which was designed to increase interest in fruits and vegetables, exhibited increased consumption of and liking of fruits and vegetables, compared with those who did not participate. The findings, published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, also found that participants had improvements in behavioral regulation.
Researchers studied 133 Hispanic youths ages 15 to 21 who were randomized to low social status or high social status in a rigged game of Monopoly and found that males who received high social status advantages consumed significantly more during lunchtime, compared with males who played the game with a disadvantaged low status. The findings, presented at ObesityWeek Interactive and published in Obesity, also showed that females who played the game with a high status consumed slightly less at lunchtime, compared with female peers who were assigned to low status.
Experts told a National Academy of Medicine forum on clinician well-being that solutions to burnout should take a systems approach that looks at causes and strategies that will be effective during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. "We need to protect our workers and allow them to do their job safely, effectively and efficiently," said Pascale Carayon of the Wisconsin Institute for Healthcare Systems Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Survey data from The Physicians Foundation showed almost three-quarters of physicians said social determinants of health will put the biggest strain on health care next year and 34% said SDOH will drive health care demand. The third part of the 2020 Survey of America's Physicians found 40% of physicians say socioeconomic issues, such as income and job security, are the most important SDOH.
The Supreme Court, which now has a 6-3 conservative majority, is scheduled to hear oral arguments today on a Republican-led lawsuit seeking to strike down the Affordable Care Act. A ruling is not expected until June, but if the lawsuit succeeds, roughly 21 million Americans could lose health insurance coverage.
With Democrat Joe Biden projected to be the next US president and Republicans possibly maintaining control of the Senate, further disputes over the next coronavirus relief package look likely. Both sides agree some form of aid is needed, but Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., has renewed his call on Democrats to compromise on their $2 trillion cost estimate.
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