Mouse study supports hypothesis that rotavirus can trigger Type 1 diabetes | Study in fruit flies led to promising new field of research | Vaccine for genital herpes effective in mice, guinea pigs, monkeys
The common rotavirus destroys pancreatic islet cells and might trigger some Type 1 diabetes in children with certain gene mutations, researchers reported in PLOS Pathogens. Scientists noticed a decline in Type 1 diabetes that corresponded with declining rotavirus rates in children after a vaccine was introduced, and mice infected with monkey rotavirus had widespread islet cell death and residual damage.
Researchers studying the development of fruit fly wings in 1973 discovered that cells compete with one another, launching a new field of study, and further studies in mammals using modern molecular tools have shown that cell competition is essentially a quality-control system. Future research on how cell competition works in adult mammals could lead to treatments for cancer or therapies that rejuvenate damaged tissues and organs.
A vaccine for herpes simplex 2 virus completely prevented mice and guinea pigs from developing lesions, almost entirely prevented the virus from lodging in nerve roots, and stimulated a robust immune response in two rhesus monkeys, protecting them from infection. The experimental vaccine produces a protein that blocks the virus from entering cells and replicating, two other proteins make the virus vulnerable to the immune system, and the RNA is encased in a fatty acid to protect it from degradation.
Surgeons used skin from a genetically modified pig to close a person's burn wound, and the graft was not rejected. The modification removed a gene that pigs have but humans do not, reducing the risk of an immune reaction and rejection of the graft.
People may have an ability to regrow cartilage the way salamanders and zebrafish regenerate limbs, researchers reported in Science Advances, and the finding could lead to new treatments for osteoarthritis, joint injuries and possibly limb-regenerating therapies. Researchers say humans share certain molecular similarities with salamanders, and they hope to identify regulators of regeneration that salamanders have but humans lack to facilitate therapies to promote regeneration.
Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh have developed a device that uses red light to remove carbon monoxide from the blood and oxygenate it in tests involving rats, according to a study in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The device pumps blood from a vein in the leg through a porous membrane where it is exposed to red light.
Genetic activity in koalas may provide a unique window into evolutionary processes, say researchers who asked whether a defective version of retrovirus in a population of marsupials provides protection against diseases such as chlamydia. Researchers are focusing on the role of piRNAs, bits of RNA that deactivate endogenous retroviruses.
The NIH announced five priorities for a five-year plan addressing tick-borne diseases and will add another $6 million to the budget for new initiatives next year. The NIH will expand research to better understand tick-borne infections, improve infection detection and diagnosis, identify biomarkers and predictors of treatment success, develop new treatments, and improve researchers' access to samples, data and experimental treatments.
Animal rights groups mislead the public about animal research, but FBR is fighting back with facts. In this resource, highly respected neuro-oncologist and FBR Board Vice-Chair Dr. Henry S. Friedman refutes myths surrounding animal research with scientific evidence and sets the record straight on the reality and benefits of animal research. Check it out. The brochure is also available in Spanish. Check out Investigación Animal Percepciones vs. Realidad.
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The Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR) is the nation’s oldest and largest non-profit dedicated to improving human and animal health by promoting public understanding and support for biomedical research. Our mission is to educate people about the essential role animal research plays in the quest for medical advancements, treatments and cures for both people and animals.