A grandmother's proximity to her grandchildren, along with her age, may have once affected in the children's survival, two studies published in Current Biology suggest. One study found that children between the ages of 2 and 5 had a 30% better chance of survival if their maternal grandmother, aged between 50 and 75, lived nearby, while the other study focused on proximity alone, finding that daughters had fewer babies the farther away they were from their own mothers.
The femur fossil of a turtle relative that lived 240 million years ago contained a cancerous tumor, according to findings published in JAMA Oncology. It is the earliest evidence of cancer in an amniote, researchers say.
A coral reef fish may be able to recognize itself in a mirror, according to a study published in PLOS Biology. After researchers injected a colored dye on the throats of bluestreak cleaner wrasses and placed them in a mirrored tank, the fish appeared to try to scrape the mark off after seeing themselves in the mirror, potentially a sign of self-awareness.
Capsules that contain tiny medical devices can help administer medication from inside a person's digestive tract, according to findings published in Science. The capsules, which hold devices the size of a pea with needle tips that deliver injections of medicines, such as insulin, were tested on pigs.
A fabric that adjusts to the wearer's body temperature has been developed by researchers at the University of Maryland. The yarn that makes up the fabric expands or contracts depending on the level of heat or humidity, according to findings published in Science.
Findings from a study in the journal JAMA Oncology showed immunotherapy's potential as a treatment for the HIV-associated cancer Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-positive patients. Data indicated a 67% response rate when checkpoint inhibitors were given to the patients.
Adults with obesity experienced substantial reductions in fat mass, total body weight and total lean mass a year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, as well as a 32% increase in relative muscle strength, but a 9% decline in mean absolute grip strength, according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Researchers examined 47 adults with a mean age of 45 and found that the RYGB procedure also led to statistically and clinically significant improvements in physical performance measures, including gait speed and walk time.
The NIH has asked a federal oversight office to look into 12 allegations of foreign influence on research projects funded by the US, according to Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, who has been pressing the agency for more information about the allegations. Daniel Levinson, inspector general with the Health and Human Services Department, has released few details about the investigation.
The deadline has been extended to Feb. 15 for professional researchers to submit proposals to lead symposia, oral or poster research presentations, panel discussions, and workshops at the 2019 Sigma Xi Annual Meeting and Student Research Conference. The meeting theme, "Our Changing Global Environment," encourages scientific discussions on environmental changes and their societal, economical, and policy implications. The committee welcomes proposals that address multidisciplinary solutions and strategies for environmental change mitigation and adaptation across life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering.
The new issue of American Scientist features articles on estimating ancient populations by aerial survey, science-based wildlife conservation policy, frequency hopping, pillbox engineering, the rise of baleen filter feeding, keeping birds out of jet engines, and much more! Sigma Xi members should look for their digital or print editions (additional content is exclusively available on the American Scientist website). Nonmembers can find the magazine on newsstands or order a copy for $5.95 plus shipping fees by calling 1-800-282-0444 and selecting option 4.