The last scientific paper that includes input by the physicist Stephen Hawking, who died in March, has been released on arXiv.org. Titled "Black Hole Entropy and Soft Hair," the paper suggests that some information about an object thrown into a black hole might be preserved, accounting for a change in the black hole's entropy.
Baby mice with two biological fathers and no mother have been produced in a lab using a gene-editing technique, according to findings published in Cell Stem Cell. Researchers used stem cells from two male mice to create embryos implanted into female surrogates, producing offspring, but none of the pups survived for more than a few days after birth.
Small lab-grown organoids are helping scientists learn more about how color-sensing cells in human eyes develop, according to findings published online in Science. Researchers engineered stem cells to develop into eye tissue with photoreceptors that reacted to different colors of light.
A close celestial companion of some kind likely siphoned off the mass of a star before it exploded into an unusual supernova, ejecting very little material, according to findings scheduled for publication in Science. "We call this an ultrastripped envelope supernova," said Mansi Kasliwal of the California Institute of Technology, adding that the observation is "the first time we have convincingly seen core collapse of a massive star that is so devoid of matter."
Ultrasound automated breast volume scanning along with digital breast tomosynthesis is comparably as sensitive and accurate as MRI for staging breast cancer, and the combination is an alternative to MRI in surgical planning, researchers reported in the European Journal of Radiology.
An analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study found that, for middle-aged and older women who do not have cardiovascular disease, traditional and newer cardiovascular risk factors have mostly similar effects on coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke incidence, researchers reported in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Blood pressure, lipid levels, inflammation measures and other risk factors varied in comparisons of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
An artificial intelligence-assisted ultrasound system was as accurate as physicians in evaluating thyroid nodules and could help doctors improve their own accuracy, researchers reported at the 2018 American Thyroid Association annual meeting. People who interpret ultrasound reports likely lack as much experience as thyroid radiologists or endocrinologists have, "so to have an AI approach reliably do that would be very interesting and exciting," said Dr. Mabel Ryder, co-chair of the meeting's program committee.
The National Science Foundation has awarded a $2 million grant to Duke University for a study of how changes in DNA affect cancer development. Researchers plan to use CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to get a closer look at the structure of DNA and how it can be controlled.
Scientists, engineers and students will discuss opportunities, challenges and ethical considerations of using big data in research during symposia at Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society's Annual Meeting and Student Research Conference. The events will take place Oct. 26-28 at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport in California. The Student Research Conference on Oct. 27 includes a research poster competition that is open to high school students through graduate students. Register today!
American Scientist's special issue on big data and astrophysics is now available
The September-October issue of American Scientist illuminates the ways that astronomers employ computational techniques to manage the ever-increasing flood of data from state-of-the-art observatories -- and how these techniques can benefit other areas of science. Sigma Xi members should look for their digital or print editions (additional content is exclusively available on the americanscientist.org website). Nonmembers can find the magazine on newsstands or order a copy for $5.95 plus shipping fees by calling 1-800-282-0444 and selecting option 4.