Early onset of diabetes was associated with depressive symptoms, smoking, high stress, concentrated neighborhood poverty, intimate partner violence, financial worries, being separated or single, and having less than a high school diploma, with a 1.53 hazard ratio among those with more than three risk factors, according to a study in JAMA Network Open. Researchers also found that infrequent exercise, having less than a high school diploma, concentrated neighborhood poverty, smoking and being widowed were tied to early onset of hypertension, with a hazard ratio of 1.41 for those with more than three risk factors.
Smokers who continued the habit after a stroke, using up to 20 cigarettes each day, were at a 68% increased risk for a repeat stroke, compared with nonsmokers, according to findings published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. However, those who quit smoking after their stroke were 29% less likely to experience another stroke than those who continued smoking, according to the study of 3,069 stroke survivors.
A study in JAMA Network Open found that each additional 12-ounce sugary beverage consumed was associated with a 1.15 hazard ratio for coronary heart disease mortality and a 1.11 all-cause mortality hazard ratio. Using information on 13,440 individuals ages 45 and older, researchers found that even 100% fruit juices were linked to mortality risk, with each additional 12 ounces associated with a hazard ratio of 1.28 for CHD mortality and 1.24 for all-cause mortality.
US adults ages 45 to 64 were more likely to die from cancer than heart disease between 1999 and 2017, but cancer mortality among that group fell 19% during the study period, according to a study in the CDC's National Vital Statistics Reports. Meanwhile, the prevalence of heart disease-related deaths decreased by 22% from 1999 to 2011, then increased 4% from 2011 to 2017, with the greatest increase found among white women.
A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that average total cholesterol levels in children and teens dropped from 164 mg/dL in 1999 to 155 mg/dL in 2016, with levels of HDL cholesterol increasing and levels of LDL cholesterol declining during the same period. However, researchers found that only 51% of all youths had normal cholesterol levels, while about 15% and 25% of children and teens, respectively, had unhealthy cholesterol levels.
Preventing and treating cardiovascular disease requires a patient-centered focus and good collaboration, and CVD guidelines stress the importance of promoting a healthy lifestyle, Dr. Salim Virani told the National Lipid Association annual meeting. Virani said physicians have limited time with patients, so having a CV risk team that includes nurse practitioners, physician assistants and dietitians can lead to better outcomes and reduce CV risks.
Our built environment can have a big impact on whether or not our patients perform physical activity. There are a number of initiatives underway that seek to address community-level barriers to promoting physical activity, including Complete Streets and the National Physical Activity Plan. Read our recent article.