Case report: Pediatric HIV remission after brief treatment in infancy | CDC: Contaminated breast pump tied to severe infection in preemie | Sex differences in brain structure seen in teens with conduct disorder
A case study presented at a conference of the International AIDS Society described a 9-year-old South African child born with HIV who achieved remission for 8.5 years despite discontinuing antiretroviral treatment in infancy. The findings suggest that brief HIV treatment for affected children in infancy may in some cases allow long-term remission and prevention of some HIV-related health risks but more studies are needed, said National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Dr. Anthony Fauci.
CDC researchers described a premature female infant whose spinal fluid showed Cronobacter sakazakii bacteria at age 3 weeks and later developed severe meningitis and significant development delays after consuming milk from a contaminated breast pump. The case report was published in the agency's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Researchers who used MRI found that boys with conduct disorder had lower cortical thickness but girls with CD had higher cortical thickness, compared with healthy controls. The findings in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry suggest that boys and girls may have different causes of severe antisocial behavior, which may prompt the creation of sex-specific prevention programs and treatments, said researcher Dr. Graeme Fairchild.
Seven percent of type 1 diabetes patients and 22% of type 2 diabetes patients had diabetic peripheral neuropathy, with the risk of DPN associated with glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes, but not among those with type 2 diabetes, according to a study in Diabetes Care. Researchers used a cohort of 1,992 youths with diabetes and found that there was an almost twofold increase in the prevalence of DPN with every five-year increase in diabetes duration in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients.
One-year-olds whose feces had a certain microbiome had improved brain functioning at age 2, compared with those whose feces didn't, researchers reported in the journal Biological Psychiatry. The findings suggest that there may be a way to guide infant gut microbiome development to boost cognitive development and curb autism risk, said researcher Rebecca Knickmeyer.
A study in Pediatric Anesthesia found that parents' and anesthesiologists' visual analog scale scores for children's anxiety during anesthesia induction prior to surgery were strongly linked to modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale scores. The findings, based on data involving 401 youths ages 1.5 to 16, also showed higher VAS scores among those ages 5 and younger and those whose parents were highly anxious.
There may be more incidents of cyberbullying on Instagram than other social media platforms, according to a survey of more than 10,000 people. About 42% of Instagram users reported being bullied, compared with 37% on Facebook, 31% on Snapchat, 10% on YouTube and 9% on Twitter.
Senate Parliamentarian Elizabeth MacDonough says some parts of the Better Care Reconciliation Act violate the Byrd Rule and would require 60 votes to pass, instead of the simple majority Republican leaders are aiming for under reconciliation procedures, and appropriation of cost-sharing reduction payments and a lockout provision for lapsed coverage are among the problematic portions of the bill. GOP leaders announced last week that they plan to vote Tuesday on a procedural motion to kick off debate on health care legislation, but it remains unclear whether they have sufficient votes to advance debate, or which bill they will be voting on.
Americans will have fewer places to ask for help when signing up for coverage through public insurance exchanges after the Trump administration terminated contracts that provided Affordable Care Act enrollment assistance in libraries, businesses and neighborhoods in 18 cities. The move will make it more difficult for the uninsured and those already enrolled to shop for a new policy amid consumer confusion arising from the debate in Washington, D.C., and a shorter enrollment period, consumer groups say.
Spark Therapeutics' Luxturna, or voretigene neparvovec, for treatment of patients with inherited retinal disease, received rare pediatric disease status from the FDA. The drug is under review with an action date of Jan. 12, 2018.