Forty-six percent of type 2 diabetes patients achieved diabetes remission and lost an average of 10 kg of body weight after participating in a one-year weight management program, compared with only 4% in the control group, according to a UK study in The Lancet. Researchers found that remission was more likely among participants who lost more weight and that those in the weight management program also gained an average improvement of 7.2 points on the quality of life scale, compared with a drop of almost 2.9 points among controls.
The overall crude diabetes prevalence across ethnic groups was 6.9% among men and 3.7% in women, with the difference persisting after standardizing for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status, according to a study in Diabetic Medicine. Researchers analyzed data from the UK Biobank involving 489,079 adults ages 40 to 69 and found that in a subgroup analysis of South Asian participants, Bangladeshi men had the highest prevalence of diabetes, followed by Pakistani and Indian men, compared with women.
A study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine found 17.6% of peripheral arterial disease patients were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of peripheral arterial revascularization, at a cost of more than $11,000 per readmission. Most readmissions were for procedural complications, but sepsis, diabetes and gangrene also were causes.
Diabetes patients who had at least one severe hypoglycemic episode had a three-year cumulative incidence of mortality at 28.3% and a 10.8% incidence of coronary heart disease, according to a study in Diabetes Care. Researchers used a cohort of 1,209 participants and found an association between severe hypoglycemia and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality and CHD even after adjustments, but found no correlation between hypoglycemia and atrial fibrillation, heart failure, non-CV and noncancer death, or stroke.
Researchers evaluated data from the UK Biobank involving 500,000 individuals, ages 40 to 69, and found that almost 50% of type 1 diabetes cases occurred in adulthood, many of which were misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes, and more than 40% occurred after age 30. The findings were published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.
One or a handful of exercise sessions train the heart and coronary arteries to endure brief periods of ischemia, minimizing infarct size and ventricular arrhythmia, researchers reported in JAMA Cardiology. The findings suggest that having able patients undergo a few sessions of exercise before a planned cardiac intervention might reduce in-hospital mortality and morbidity.
Researchers analyzed data from old and new studies and found that diets containing more than 25% of calories from added sugars were associated with a threefold increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, compared with diets containing less than 10% of calories from added sugars. The findings, published in Open Heart, showed that added sugars may lead to the development of chronic heart disease and other CV complications via insulin resistance.
An artificial patch of heart muscle made from human pluripotent stem cells was developed by Duke University biomedical engineers and shows potential in covering damage caused by heart attacks, according to the journal Nature Communications. The heart patch is 2.5 square inches, very thin, and electrically and mechanically functional.
Apple and Stanford University have initiated the Apple Heart Study to assess potential arrhythmias using the Apple Watch, with support from American Well, which will provide telemedicine services, and BioTelemetry, which will provide its ePatch ECG monitoring patch for use by participants who show signs of possible atrial fibrillation. A free app from the app store can be downloaded by users of Apple Watch Series 1 or later who are at least 21 and want to participate in the study.
A needle system that allows for imaging of cardiac soft tissues from inside the heart and can emit ultrasound using a silicone-encased mesh of carbon nanotubes on the tip of an optical fiber in the needle housing was tested in pigs and demonstrated success in capturing high-resolution images up to 2.5 cm from the location of the needle tip, researchers from London reported in Light: Science & Applications. The scientists are looking to explore use of the system for clinical applications.